Side Effects of All Contraceptives

Side Effects of All Contraceptives

Side Effects of All Contraceptives

 

Hormonal Implants

·         Success Rate with Typical Use: 99%

Pros      

·         Long-term method of birth control (protects against pregnancy for 3 years after insertion–it can be removed by a health care provider when you want to or you can wait for 3 years when it’s time for a change of implant)

·         Very effective against pregnancy

·         May cause light or no menstrual periods

 

Cons

·         Doesn’t protect against STIs

·         Requires minor surgery and insertion of the tiny rod(s) underneath the skin

·         Requires minor surgery to remove device

·         Can cause side effects such as irregular menstrual periods, depression, nervousness, hair loss, and weight gain

·         Could get infection at area where capsule is implanted

·         Can’t be used by women with certain medical conditions and by women who use certain medications

 

Intra-Uterine Device (IUD)

Success Rate with Typical Use: 99%

 

Pros      

·         Very effective against pregnancy

·         Provide protection against pregnancy as long as in place in your uterus- protects as soon as inserted (so don’t need to remember to use contraception if you have sexual intercourse)

·         Doesn’t need daily attention- just need to check to make sure in place at least once a month at time of menstrual period

·         Comfortable- you and your partner cannot feel the IUD, although you partner may feel the string

·         The levonorgestrel IUD (Mirena, Skyla) lessens menstrual flow and can be used to treat heavy periods

·         Can be removed at any time and you can get pregnant right after removal

 

Cons

·         Doesn’t protect against STIs and shouldn’t be selected if high risk of STI

·         Needs to be inserted by a health care provider

·         Can fall out or can rarely puncture the uterus

·         The copper IUD can have side effects such as menstrual cramping, longer and/or heavier menstrual periods, and spotting between menstrual periods

·         Slightly higher risk for infection in the first 20 days after insertion

 

Tubal Ligation (Female Sterilization)

Success Rate with Typical Use: 99%

 

Pros      

·         Very effective against pregnancy

·         One time decision that will provide protection against pregnancy forever

·         Need to have minor surgery

·         Permanent (although it is possible to undo sterilization with major surgery, it’s not always successful)

·         Only should be used by women who are absolutely sure that they do not want any or any more children

 

Cons

·     No protection against STIs

 

Depo-Provera Hormonal Injection

Success Rate with Typical Use: 94%

 

Pros      

·         Each injection provides 3 months of protection against pregnancy

·         Very effective against pregnancy if used correctly

·         Many women stop getting their menstrual period while getting injections. (This is not a medical problem and menstrual periods usually return 6-18 months after you stop taking injections)

·         Helps protect against uterine cancer

·         Doesn’t interrupt sexual activity

 

Cons

·         Doesn’t protect against STIs

·         Need to see your health care provider every 3 months for an injection

·         Depending on your insurance, your birth control may be free or there may be a co-pay

·         May have side effects such as weight gain, tiredness, and possibly a decrease in bone density

·         Many women have very irregular menstrual bleeding or spotting for the first 3 to 6 months and sometimes longer

 

 

Birth Control Pills

Success Rate with Typical Use: 91%

 

Pros      

·         Very effective against pregnancy if used correctly

·         Makes menstrual periods more regular and lighter

·         Decreases menstrual cramps and acne

·         Makes you less likely to get ovarian and uterine cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, and anemia

·         Doesn’t interrupt sexual activity

 

Cons

·         Doesn’t protect against STIs

·         Depending on your insurance, your birth control may be free or there may be a co-pay.

·         Need to remember to take every day at the same time

·         Can’t be used by women with certain medical problems or by women taking certain medications

·         Can occasionally cause side effects such as nausea, increased appetite, headaches, and, very rarely, blood clots

·         Need a prescription

·         Still need condoms to lower the risk of STIs

 

Hormone Patch (Ortho-Evra) (Xulane)

Success Rate with Typical Use: 91%

 

Pros      

·         Very effective against pregnancy if used correctly

·         Makes menstrual periods more regular and lighter

·         Decreases menstrual cramps and acne

·         Makes you less likely to get ovarian and uterine cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, and anemia

·         Doesn’t interrupt sexual activity

 

Cons

Doesn’t protect against STIs

Still need condoms to lower the risk of STIs

Can’t be used by women with certain medical problems or by women taking certain medications

Can occasionally cause side effects such as nausea, increased appetite, headaches, and irregular bleeding in the first few cycles

Increased risk of blood clots

Need a prescription

 

Vaginal Hormonal Ring (Nuva-Ring)

Success Rate with Typical Use: 91%

 

Pros      

·         Very effective against pregnancy if used correctly

·         Makes menstrual periods more regular and lighter

·         Decreases menstrual cramps and acne

·         Makes you less likely to get ovarian and uterine cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, and anemia

·         Doesn’t interrupt sexual activity

 

Cons

·         Doesn’t protect against STIs

·         Still need condoms to lower the risk of STIs

·         Can’t be used by women with certain medical problems or by women taking certain medications

·         Can occasionally cause side effects such as nausea, increased appetite, headaches

·         Increased risk of blood clots

·         Need a prescription

 

Diaphragm

Success Rate with Typical Use: 88%

Pros      

·         Can be put in place right before intercourse or 2-3 hours before intercourse

·         Don’t need to take out between acts of sexual intercourse (protects against pregnancy for about 6 hours, but need to reapply spermicide)

·         Doesn’t protect against STIs

 

Cons

·         Need to get fitted by a health care provider and need a prescription

·         May be difficult to find

·         Can’t take out until 6 hours after intercourse

·         May get moved out of place during sexual intercourse

·         Some women may be allergic to the diaphragm or to the spermicide

·         Need to be re-fitted after a 10 pound weight gain or loss and after pregnancy

·         Can be messy

·         Need to reapply spermicide with each act of sexual intercourse

·         Can cause an increase in urinary tract infections

 

IUB (Intra-Uterine Ball)

Pros

The IUB™ copper pearls are a birth control method that requires no hormones and is effective for up to 5 years. The IUB™ works along the same principle as other intrauterine devices and prevents pregnancy locally - within the uterus. The contraceptive effect comes mainly from the copper.

The IUB™ copper pearls consist of a special shape memory alloy, which has been successfully used in medicine for a long time, e.g. in implants and stents. Several copper pearls are strung on a uterus friendly frame, coated with polymer.

 

Cons

Longer periods and spotting between periods can occur - most of these side effects diminish after 2-3 months. After your uterus gets used to the IUB™ copper pearls these side effects occur less frequently. 

The IUB™ does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

 

 

If you have questions about a side effect, check with your health care provider. Click here to learn more about the IUB!

 

 

h/t to youngwomenshealth.org for this great article!